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In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, thus creating magma.This magma tends to be extremely viscous because of its high silica content, so it often does not attain the surface but cools and solidifies at depth.Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater.

In this case, the oceanic plate subducts, or submerges, under the continental plate, forming a deep ocean trench just offshore.One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine.Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere).The Hawaiian Islands are said to have been formed in such a manner; so has the Snake River Plain, with the Yellowstone Caldera being the part of the North American plate above the hot spot. The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit; however, this describes just one of the many types of volcano.The features of volcanoes are much more complicated and their structure and behavior depends on a number of factors.

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